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WORK PACKAGE 1 “MANUFACTURE OF ROMAN CEMENTS”
Work package 1 is based on Roman cements successfully developed and tested by the ROCEM-project. The aim of technology transfer from pilot to industrial scale forms the primary objective of ROCARE. It will be achieved by adapting the cement manufacturing processes to the technical and logistic premises of the producers. The three producers within the project consortium stand for different scales and profiles, they use different technologies.
Work package 1 comprises several tasks:
Identify and check appropriate raw materials for Roman cement production
The usual raw materials for the production of Roman cements are marls, i.e. calcareous rocks with certain amounts of clay. Because marls are of natural geologic origin, the resulting Roman cements belong to the group of “Natural Cements”. Only exceptionally will man-made mixtures of limestone and clay be considered.
The marl stones are selected according to the specific conditions of the cement producing partners:
- W&P - Marl from company sources in Austria
- MBM - Marl from a recent cement stone quarry in Folwark (PL)
- VFB - Marls from historic Roman cement stone quarries in the area of Salzburg and Kufstein (AT)
Chemical, mineralogical and petrographic analysis of the raw materials together with some laboratory calcination tests are performed to assure their basic ability for optimum Roman cements.
Advice on the calcination of the marls will be provided based upon the knowledge gained in the ROCEM project. Mineralogical analysis of trial calcinations will be compared with those of existing high quality cements.
Pilot stage calcination of Roman cements and quality check
Limited quantities of Roman cements are produced, using the available kilns of the partners, i.e. a modern shaft kiln, a Lepol/rotary kiln, a small pilot rotary kiln, and a small traditional shaft kiln.
The cements will be checked for basic properties according to the state-of-the-art, such as time of set, mortar strength at various ages, and soundness under water. The prescriptions of the historic norms will be followed wherever possible.
Using XRD, DTA-TG and SEM/EDX techniques, the optimum Roman cements will be characterised for their chemical-mineralogical composition.
Optimisation of further process steps
For good cements according to the criteria of the quality check, additional tests will be performed with the aim to elucidate a number of process modifications, such as e.g.
- controlled mixtures of clinkers with different degrees of calcination from one and the same batch
- controlled mixtures of different sieve fractions of cement
- Curing of cements under open air conditions
- Admixture of various retarders
Roman cement production for the use by the project consortium
Optimum Roman cements based on the above quality criteria will be used to test a wider range of mortar formulations in Workpackage 2. Successful mortar mixtures will be applied in on-site trials and demonstration activities within Workpackage 3.
MBM , W&P , VFB
Further partners involved
EPFL , IATCS, UOB , RFPL , UPFR , CAS, ICSC, TPA , CPP-LRMH , AGW